Tuberculosis, HIV and STD Vaccines
STD stands for sexually transmitted disease. People contract STDs through sexual contact with an infected person. Risk of contracting STDs can be reduced by avoiding sexual contact and also by being vaccinated. Some STDs, such as such as gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and syphilis, are caused by bacteria. They are usually effectively treated with antibiotics. Viral STDs are often highly persistent despite current therapeutic options or have no acceptable treatment available. Therefore, vaccines for certain viral STDs are in use, and others are in development.
Tuberculosis vaccines are vaccinations intended for the prevention of tuberculosis. Immunotherapy as a defence against TB was first proposed in 1890 by Robert Koch. Today, the only approved tuberculosis vaccine is bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG), which has been around since 1921.
There are no vaccines to prevent or cure HIV, but people with HIV can benefit from vaccines against other diseases. Testing is underway on experimental vaccines to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS, but no HIV vaccines are approved for use outside of clinical trials.